SUSTAINABLE AND AFFORDABLE HOUSING
Il Master Internazionale di II livello in Sustainable and Affordable Housing nasce dalla collaborazione tra il Dipartimento di Architettura, Design e Urbanistica dell'Università di Sassari , la Facultade de Arquitectura dell'Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa ( Portogallo ), la Universidade Presbiteriana Meckenzie di Sao Paulo ( Brasile ) e la Regione Autonoma della Sardegna - Assessorato del Lavoro, Formazione Professionale, Cooperazione e sicurezza sociale.
Le attività hanno avuto inizio il 20 maggio 2014.
25 novembre 2014
Objective of workshop
The existence and persistence of phenomena of social and environmental deterioration in our cities, of voids that lack any quality, of underutilized “zoned” areas, all seem to be passively accepted by local municipal administrations, as the inevitable consequences of the onslaught of building development that has devastated regional landscapes from the Second World-War onwards into the 1980’s.
researching grouping individual houses designed as one collective (house), positioned in a central courtyard of an urban block or any other void space in our cities, focussing on the relationship between existing and new houses also as on the social aspect of living together more than on the individual aspect of each individual needs. This might influence the urban tissue and the way we design our houses.
Housing and social space
Only half a century ago many people in Western Europe lived in miserable conditions; the past is not far away but already forgotten. At this moment too much is focussed on the individual needs rather than on social aspects of living together.
The cities often consisted of dirty streets with open sewers. They were subjected to polluted water supplies, insufficient open spaces and large areas of squalid housing and suffered from congested circulation. The countless workers - often sons of farmers from the countryside - were faced with a shortage of cheap housing. They came to work in the new industries. The city centres of major cities quickly became overcrowded. Due to a large natural increase in the second half of the 19th century, the cities faced a housing shortage. If we want to define the living conditions accurately we should not only look at the quality of the houses themselves but also at the quality of urban design. The reduction of high density does necessarily imply a better and healthier city. Equally as important is the social bond that people have with the street, the neighbourhood and the city. It is this bond and the associated sense of responsibility concerning the immediate exterior together with a good construction quality that determines the housing conditions.
Cholera and typhus and other nasty diseases were still quite common in the first half of 20th century. Accordingly, Le Corbusier came up with a rigorous proposal for the centre of Paris: a garden-city, “Le Plan Voisin”. Although not conducted, there was a very large scale poor quality imitation of these plans in the sixties and seventies in the Western European suburbs. They were powered by an advanced industrialization and, again, a housing shortage, partly as a result of immigration to further rural depopulation. The park-like quality of the large-scale housing developments has been greatly reduced with the advent of the car. These are precisely the areas where there has been so much social turmoil. They are anonymous residential areas where the immigrant and native residents often do not understand each other. These urban structures have not anticipated social and environmental contexts.
Luckiliy good examples still exist. The main quality lies in the intermediate collective gardens, public spaces and sports facilities. The best known examples are the HBM by Henri Sauvage in Paris and Tony Garnier in Lyon based on garden-city ideas of Ebenezer Howard. "Siedlung Halen" (Bern, Atelier 5) is one of the best examples of modern social housing in Europe. Virtually a flattened Unité, clearly demonstrating the advantages of streets without traffic, creating social space. Nowadays social housing is becoming again more and more an emerging topic. Do not misunderstand it with housing for the poor. In my opinion it stands for affordable housing with more attention to the social aspect of living together, rather than focusiing on each individual needs.
In the 19th and early 20th century, the living conditions of the Dutch working population in the cities was often appalling. In the Netherlands in 1901, the Housing Act came into force. The revolution construction of the late 19th century did not bring the necessary improvements in social housing. Some neighbourhoods were even notorious, such as the Jordaan in Amsterdam. Many The Hague and Rotterdam families lived crammed into slums and narrow corridors where there was almost no daylight. Children grew up in dilapidated shacks and dank cellar dwellings, small alcove housing or attics.
The purpose of the Housing Act was to make habitation of poor and unhealthy dwellings impossible and to stimulate good constructions. It is generally regarded as the beginning of the government involvement in housing in the Netherlands.
The government could now set rules to build quality and provide subsidies to homebuilders, with a special preference for corporations. Public Works became an important institution. In the “Plan Zuid” (1917), Berlage combined wide avenues and winding side-streets. His plan consisted of closed perimeter blocks, which tied in well with the characteristics of the 17th century Amsterdam. The houses ware largely built in Amsterdam School style. Seventy-five percent of all the buildings were intended to be working-class housing, making the plan an expression of the ideas, which were fundamental to the Housing Act. Providing both the poor and the rich with the same urban qualities appeared to work out very well.
Row-housing and Open Blocks
In the fifties and sixties the district Buitenveldert (Amsterdam South) was built not far from Plan Zuid. This district was the example of the urban vision of the Department of Urban Development led by Van Eesteren. The new development areas like Buitenveldert were, considered in the context of ‘the functional city’ not very radical and no more than an efficient ordening of functions. The district had a spacious design in strips with variation in low-rise building, row houses and gallery-flats. Basically due to its strategic location near the Zuidas (which is a location for amenities and employment) Buitenveldert is still popular, unlike the Bijlmermeer, which was built later. That district was a fiasco. Also other monotone ‘copy-paste’ districts failed after their early succes. Although the apartments are spaciously set up, it is clear that also good connections and facilities are essential to the success of a residential area. The traffic separation schemes in the Bijlmermeer also contributed to a disfunctional street environment and diminished social cohesion. It soon led to anonymity and social insecurity. Nowadays the Bijlmer is being reconstructed and rapidly becoming a popular neighbourhood.
The row-housing typology such as we find in Buitenveldert has been widely realized in the Netherlands in the form of low-rise housing. The single-family townhouse is the most comprehensive typology in the Netherlands. This means that the density of the expansion areas around the cities and in the villages can often be no more than 25 dwellings per hectare.
This leads to a typical street pattern and design of public space. More than fifty percent of my country looks like this, constructed for decades since the 1950’s. The row house typology is a popular one in the Netherlands. However, flooding in the nineties and evacuation of whole villages and towns showed how poor the urban quality is. The street provides space for cars, parking, pedestrians, even a small spot of green, and front gardens. All bravely positioned next to each other. It shows that it takes more or less 1/3 of the area, which is an enormous amount of pavement. Also it serves the individual needs and all departments in the local government responsible for a piece of the public space are served and satisfied. They are accustomed to this system. The distance between the houses is 25-30 meters in such a profile, which is fairly wide.
Although one might think that architects and urban planners would have united their cause leading to an attachment in the Declaration of Human Rights, which deals with minimum conditions for living and life around the world, they haven’t done, up to now. On the contrary, in many civilized countries the achievement of social housing has been minimized or has died out completely, whereas architects concentrated their efforts on what only well-off people are able to afford. This has led to a lot of good architectural performances. However, a revival of social space is lacking.
In town planning social space is the most important organizational tool to connect architecture and urbanism. Urbanism is fundamentally a richer and more important instrument than architecture. With Urban planning we have the possibility to influence society.
Although a house with a garden and a car upfront is considered as an ideal situation for many in the Netherlands, it is highly important to concentrate on a new concept of public space in future building design. The purpose of social space is to generate social cohesion. From this perspective, we design new typologies transforming public space into social space, where living is synonymous with good neighbourliness and respect for the environment and nature. In many of our projects we created apart from the social space a nature-like environment adapting to existing elements, or landscaping it ourselves completely.
Need for new initiatives
A big trend in our society is making re-use of what is already build. Our society is not growing anymore. We should keep up our city-life qualities by implementing new projects in existing urban tissue rather than expanding. Here is a big task for architects and developers organising their projects bottom-up.
www.ahh.nl (Paswerk housing; bijlmer monument)
www.nlarchitects.nl (Kameleon building)
Koolhaas R. (1985). Le contexte: la splendeur terrifiante du XX siècle, L’Architecture d’aujour’hui, n. 238.
housing and emergency
13 novembre 2014
Ideas for a better place: participation, decision aiding and e-participation tools supporting decision making process at the local level
Le politiche di cooperazione dell’UE spingono i governi locali ad assumere responsabilità nella implementazione di processi di interazione a tutte le scale, per favorire la partecipazione e incontrare il consenso nell’individuazione di scelte politiche coerenti. Serve integrare capacità tecniche, amministrative e politiche delle istituzioni con capacità ed esperienze radicate nel contesto, in un processo di costruzione di sensibilità e punti di vista condivisi, attraverso strumenti innovativi e nuove procedure per l’organizzazione del territorio.
E-participation in decision making is gaining ground. An increasing number of administrations recently tries to promote interaction processes at all levels of government. The task of the paper is to test the usefulness and opportunities coming from a mix of e-participation and “proactive” decision support tools and propose an interactive and participatory policy-making process.
La partecipazione nei processi di policymaking; forme di partecipazione nell’ordinamento giuridico; i processi di decisione: posizioni e approcci tradizionali; alcune tecniche per l’individuazione degli stakeholders; il nuovo paradigma della partecipazione: dal crowdsourcing all’open gov; alcuni strumenti di supporto alla decisione e di e-participation per: rappresentare idee; individuare opzioni strategiche; supportare le P.A. nella gestione della cosa pubblica.
A seguire un workshop per utilizzare insieme gli strumenti in maniera combinata a partire dai temi del master.
I. Blecic, A, Cecchini, A. Plaisant, “Constructing strategies in strategic urban planning: a case study of a decision support and evaluation model”, Computational science and its applications (ICCSA 2011), New York, NY, United States, 2011
G. Borga, City Sensing. Approcci, metodi e tecnologie innovative per la Città Intelligente, Franco Angeli, Milano, 2013.
P.B. Checkland (1981). Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, Wiley, Chichester.
C. Eden and F. Ackermann, Making strategy: the journey of strategic management, Sage Publications, London, United Kingdom, 1998.
G. Kelly (1955), The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Norton: New York.
A. Plaisant (2009), “La partecipazione nel governo delle trasformazioni del territorio: strumenti innovativi per costruire la città dei diritti”, FrancoAngeli, Milano
A. Plaisant, M.M. Verona, “Ideas for a better place: e-participation tools supporting decision making process at the local level”, in 7th National Conference on Informatics and Planning – Input 2012 proceedings (INPUT 2012), Cagliari 10-12 May 2012, 2012.
A. Plaisant, MT Pinna, V. Talu (2014), “Digital Hamlets: Innovative Methods and E-Participation Tools Supporting Policy Making at the Local Level”, “City and Countryside”, selected peer reviewed papers from the 2° International Conference of Urban Planning and Sustainable Development (UPSD 2013), Harbin 15th May 2013; Harbin Institute of Technology press, Harbin (China).
M. Scott, Smart Cities and the Technology of Walking, UrbanWebcity, 24th March, 2014.
Giovanni La Varra
6-7 novembre 2014
Il tema della sostenibilità si alimenta anche di leggende, miti, imprecisioni e aspettative curiose e messianiche. Obiettivo del seminario è valutare quale pensiero critico sia possibile sviluppare attorno all’idea di sostenibilità. La forma è quella della raccolta di una serie di osservazioni critiche, una sorta di antologia che osservi i “luoghi comuni” con i quali, da più parti, si presenta la forma della sostenibilità come un modo per allontanare dall’architettura i suoi temi propri.
Il modello è ovviamente quello del “Dizionario dei luoghi comuni” di Flaubert, una antologia personale, parziale, imperfetta, ma capace di stimolare lo spirito critico e l’attenzione verso le ragioni proprie dell’architettura e della città. Quella cioè di essere ancora lo scenario della vita individuale e collettiva, delle proiezioni di attese verso una dimensione pubblica, condivisa, comune.
In questo senso, il grande mito della sostenibilità, necessità di spirito critico, razionalità, fermezza.
La città e l’architettura sono uno strano connubio di tensione all’innovazione e resistenza alla novità. E’ l’equilibrio tra queste due dimensioni a garantire alle città e alle loro architettura quel destino di durata e di significato che ogni città e ogni architettura dovrebbe perseguire.
Il workshop intende proporre agli studenti di costruire un testo collettivo, composto da piccolo saggi, articoli, citazioni, immagini di progetti, che si configuri come un primo e assolutamente parziale contributo critico al pensiero della sostenibilità come mito.
I partecipanti al workshop saranno invitati a rielaborare, oltre alle loro conoscenze acquisite, anche gli altri materiali prodotti nel corso del workshop, tentando di sviluppare un’osservazione critica personale ma inscritta dentro la più generale cornice di un “dizionario dei luoghi comuni” del pensiero della sostenibilità.
28-30 ottobre 2014
Si tratta di analizzare l'attuale filosofia di IKEA e fare un altro passo, visualizzando il futuro.
E rispondere a domande come: viviremo sempre nello stesso posto, lavoreremo nel luogo in cui viviamo, faremo vita e lavoro a casa, potremo cambiare mobili ogni tanto, hanno data scadenza gli mobili, possono essere temporaneamente sostituiti da altri, può essere trasformato in qualcosa d'altro, può essere modificato, essi possono incorporare elementi di fornire per diventare un'altra realtà o avere una nuova funzione, possono essere parti assemblate per fornire diverse realtà all'oggetto, è possibile un kit base o alloggio minimo è essere sviluppato, possiamo avere una base di sistema attaccabili, possiamo piegare, spiegare i nostri spazi di vita, possono avere accessori adattabili al nostro corpo cyborg, inventare nuovi materiali per questi oggetti, possono essere un accessorio di abbigliamento, ...
Il nostro lavoro si riflette sulla loro proposta e proporre una nuova realtà.
25-26 ottobre 2014
La proposta è di individuare uno studio tipologico per un edifiicio di 50 alloggi (bi‐tri e quadrilocali) rispetto ai quali definire un’ idea di edificio residenziale che sia riconducibile alle istanze e alle ricerche sull’abitare contemporaneo .Si richiede un concept sulla disposizione degli alloggi, gli spazi di distribuzione, lo schema strutturale, e le modalità di aggregazione morfologica (schemi urbani)
La tecnica di presentazione è libera, con schizzi, modelli ed è finalizzata a produrre modelli adattabili a contesti diversi.
A+T, COAC, Vitoria, 2009
A+T, Density, Vitoria, 2009
AAVV, Atlante dell’abitare contemporaneo (a cura di M.A. Segantini), Skira, Milano, 2007
22 ottobre 2014
La rappresentazione come capacità organizzante nei confronti del territorio e della città è il tema conduttore di questo seminario.
È possibile sostenere che la complessità del territorio, la rappresentazione della sua organizzazione e l’azione progettuale abbiano una stretta connessione?
Introduzione al seminario
Archivio progressivo. La ricerca della dimensione autoriale artigianale attraverso i progetti di architettura
21 ottobre 2014
L'obiettivo della lezione/laboratorio è di trasmettere una conoscenza delle tematiche e delle problematiche dell'abitare contemporaneo, attraverso una serie di casi studio. In parallelo si richiede agli architetti del master di sviluppare un progetto (partendo da una proposta elaborata in una precedente consegna) concependolo dall'interno. Si richiede una revisione critica del proprio elaborato e la consegna di una soluzione (una prospettiva, con diagrammi atti a far comprendere l'intervento).
Il programma della lezione ha la finalità di comunicare, attraverso progetti di housing sociale realizzati negli ultimi decenni, la complessità delle soluzioni abitative e, in parallelo, di evidenziare una resistenza della tipologia degli alloggi a subire trasformazioni di ordine funzionale.
16 ottobre 2014
The course objective is to reflect on inhabit and the relationship with the domestic space. There are three steps to set out in the definition of a space of housing; first inhabiting, second furniture as the program manager and third the concept of seclusion for the generation of flexible and complex spaces.
The program is divided into three days. Every day there are four actions: A theoretical lecture, a film about the lecture, a conference about our own work and, finally, an exercise for the students.
The first day is dedicated to inhabit. Lecture: Inhabiting. Movies: Le Corbusier, Next 21, or El hombre de al lado. Conference about own work on examples that reflect on typology. Exercise: Creating a protoplant and protosección.
The second day is devoted to furniture.
The third day is dedicated to seclusion. Lecture: Seclusion. Movies: Iron 3. Conference about own work on examples that reflect on public space in the house. Exercise: redrawn what occurred in the previous days.
F. Soriano, Postproducciones, Fisuras, 2011
F. Soriano, Desviaciones, Fisuras, 2010
F. Soriano, Seclusion, Fisuras, 2009
F. Soriano, Diagramas©, Fisuras, 2002
7 ottobre 2014
TYIN tegnestue Architects consists of Yashar Hanstad and Andreas Grøntvedt Gjertsen. The office formed during 2008, while the duo were studying architecture at the university of Trondheim – NTNU. A search for professional meaning would lead the office to the far corners of the world.
The young office completed a series of global projects, from the Thai-Burmese border to the forests of Sumatra. In later years TYIN have focused on projects on their native soil of Norway, while also giving lectures at universities around the world and working as teachers at NTNU.
TYIN emphasize a fluid and open process. An architecture of pragmatism, where design and construction go hand in hand. Simplicity in details and an architecture that allows for user influence is a core value of the office, as well as the architect’s involvement through the entirety of the construction process.
Nieto Sobejano Arquitectos
7 ottobre 2014
Enrique Sobejano has worked as an architect since graduating from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning at Columbia University in New York in 1981. He is professor at the Universität der Künste Berlin (UdK), where he holds the chair of Principles of Design. He has been a visiting critic and lecturer at various international universities worldwide. From 1986 to 1991 he was co-director of the architectural journal ARQUITECTURA, published by the Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Madrid. He chairs and participates in international conferences and juries and is a founding partner of Nieto Sobejano Arquitectos.
Fuensanta Nieto has worked as an architect since graduating from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning at Columbia University in New York in 1981. She is a founding partner of Nieto Sobejano Arquitectos and a professor at the Universidad Europea de Madrid. Fuensanta Nieto lectures on architecture and participates in juries and symposia at various institutions around the world. From 1986 to 1991 she was co-director of the architectural journal ARQUITECTURA, published by the Colegio O$cial de Arquitectos de Madrid.
Nieto Sobejano Arquitectos was founded in 1985 by Enrique Sobejano and Fuensanta Nieto, and has offices in Madrid and, since 2007, in Berlin. Along with being widely published in international magazines and books, the firm’s work has been exhibited at the Biennale di Venezia in 2000, 2002, 2006, and 2012; at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, in 2006; and at the Kunsthaus in Graz in 2008. They are the recipients of the 2008 National Prize for Restoration from the Spanish Ministry of Culture and the 2010 Nike Prize issued by the Bund Deutscher Architekten (BDA), as well as the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2010, the Piranesi Prix de Rome in 2011, and, in 2012, the European Museum of the Year Award and the Hannes Meyer Prize. Nieto Sobejano Arquitectos currently have projects in Germany, Spain, Austria, India, and Morocco.